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OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases

OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases PDF Author: Andrzej Grzybowski
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030262693
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 561

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Book Description
The second edition of OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases offers updated state-of-the-art advances using optical coherence tomography (OCT) regrading neuronal loss within the retina. Detailed information on the OCT imaging and interpretation is provided for the evaluation of disease progression in numerous neurodegenerative disorders and as a biological marker of neuroaxonal injury. Covering disorders like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, intracranial hypertension, Friedreich’s ataxia, schizophrenia, hereditary optic neuropathies, glaucoma, and amblyopia, readers will given insights into effects on the retina and the and optic nerve. Individual chapters are also devoted to OCT technique, new OCT technology in neuro-ophthalmology, OCT and pharmacological treatment, and the use of OCT in animal models. Similar to the first edition, this book is an excellent and richly illustrated reference for diagnosis of many retinal diseases and monitoring of surgical and medical treatment. OCT allows to study vision from of the retina to the optic tracts. Retinal axons in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) are non-myelinated until they penetrate the lamina cribrosa. Hence, the RNFL is an ideal structure for visualization of any process of neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, or regeneration. By documenting the ability of OCT to provide key information on CNS diseases, this book illustrates convincingly that the eye is indeed the “window to the brain”.

OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases

OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases PDF Author: Andrzej Grzybowski
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030262693
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 561

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Book Description
The second edition of OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases offers updated state-of-the-art advances using optical coherence tomography (OCT) regrading neuronal loss within the retina. Detailed information on the OCT imaging and interpretation is provided for the evaluation of disease progression in numerous neurodegenerative disorders and as a biological marker of neuroaxonal injury. Covering disorders like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, intracranial hypertension, Friedreich’s ataxia, schizophrenia, hereditary optic neuropathies, glaucoma, and amblyopia, readers will given insights into effects on the retina and the and optic nerve. Individual chapters are also devoted to OCT technique, new OCT technology in neuro-ophthalmology, OCT and pharmacological treatment, and the use of OCT in animal models. Similar to the first edition, this book is an excellent and richly illustrated reference for diagnosis of many retinal diseases and monitoring of surgical and medical treatment. OCT allows to study vision from of the retina to the optic tracts. Retinal axons in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) are non-myelinated until they penetrate the lamina cribrosa. Hence, the RNFL is an ideal structure for visualization of any process of neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, or regeneration. By documenting the ability of OCT to provide key information on CNS diseases, this book illustrates convincingly that the eye is indeed the “window to the brain”.

OCT in Central Nervous System Diseases

OCT in Central Nervous System Diseases PDF Author: Andrzej Grzybowski
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319240854
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 342

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Book Description
This book reviews recent important advances in the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in order to analyze neurodegeneration within the retina through the quantification of axonal loss. Detailed information is provided on the role of OCT as a promising tool for the evaluation of disease progression in numerous neurodegenerative disorders and as a biological marker of neuroaxonal injury. The disorders considered include multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, intracranial hypertension, Friedreich’s ataxia, schizophrenia, hereditary optic neuropathies, glaucoma, and amblyopia. Individual chapters are also devoted to OCT technique, new OCT technology in neuro-ophthalmology, OCT and pharmacological treatment, and the use of OCT in animal models. By documenting the ability of OCT to provide key information on CNS diseases, this book illustrates convincingly that the eye is indeed the “window to the brain”.

Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis

Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789464168723
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 0

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Book Description
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting more than two million people worldwide. The disease is characterised by inflammation in the CNS (leading to episodes of focal neurological dysfunction, i.e. relapses) and neurodegeneration (leading to progressive and permanent disability). Depending on the localisation of the CNS damage, patients exhibit a wide range of symptoms including muscle weakness, sensory disturbances, problems with coordination, fatigue and cognitive impairment. Visual symptoms are common as well, with more dan 50% of MS patients experiencing one or more episodes of optic neuritis (ON) during the course of the disease. The disease course in MS is highly variable and difficult to predict. However, predicting the disease course is crucial for determining the proper treatment. This thesis focuses on how optical coherence tomography (OCT) can aid in monitoring and predicting the disease course in patients with MS. OCT is an imaging technique that generates high resolution images of the retina and all its layers. The inner two retinal layers consist of the retinal ganglion cells and their axons that will eventually form the optic nerve. Thereby, these two layers are directly connected to the brain. Previous research has demonstrated that previous episodes of ON result in atrophy (thinning) of these two layers. Sometimes, it can be challenging to establish whether a patient has ever experienced an episode of optic neuritis clinically. The absolute thickness of the retinal layers is not a good indicator for this. Our research shows that the difference in retinal layer thickness between the eyes of a single patient can, with high accuracy, discriminate ON patients from non-ON patients. Being able to establish the presence of a previous episode of ON in this way, might lead to an earlier diagnosis of MS and earlier treatment.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Central Nervous System Diseases

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Central Nervous System Diseases PDF Author: Werner J. Huk
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783540176411
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 452

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Book Description
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new and still rapidly developing imaging technique which requires a new approach to image interpreta tion. Radiologists are compelled to translate their experience accumulat ed from X-ray techniques into the language of MRI, and likewise stu dents of radiology and interested clinicians need special training in both languages. Out of this necessity emerged the concept of this book as a manual on the application and evaluation of proton MRI for the radiolo gist and as a guide for the referring physician who wants to learn about the diagnostic value of MRI in specific conditions. After a short section on the basic principles of MRI, the contrast mechanisms of present-day imaging techniques, knowledge of which is essential for the analysis of relaxation times, are described in greater de tail. This is followed by a demonstration of functional neuroanatomy us ing three-dimensional view of MR images and a synopsis of frequent neurological symptoms and their topographic correlations, which will fa cilitate examination strategy with respect to both accurate diagnosis and economy.

White Matter Diseases

White Matter Diseases PDF Author: Massimo Filippi
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 303038621X
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 208

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Book Description
This book provides cutting-edge information on the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures and treatment approaches for the main white matter (WM) disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). WM lesions are associated with many neurological conditions, and with aging. The diagnostic work-up of neurological diseases characterized by the presence of these lesions has changed dramatically over the past few years. This is mainly due on the one hand to the discovery of specific pathogenetic factors in some of these conditions, and on the order to the optimized use of diagnostic tools. All of this has resulted in new diagnostic algorithms, and in the identification of new neurological conditions. The book offers neurologists essential guidance in the diagnosis and treatment of the most frequent WM conditions, promoting their correct and cost-saving diagnosis and management. By integrating neurological, laboratory and imaging concepts with the demands of accurate diagnosis, this reference guide provides a state-of-the-art overview of the current state of knowledge on these conditions, as well as practical guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment.

Imaging of the Brain in Psychiatry and Related Fields

Imaging of the Brain in Psychiatry and Related Fields PDF Author: Konrad Maurer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642770878
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 375

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Book Description
In the last two decades imaging of the brain, or neuroimaging, has become an integral part of clinical and research psychiatry. This is due to recent advances in computer technology, which has made it relatively easy to generate brain images representing structure and function of the central nervous system. Currently used clinical diagnostic imaging modalities, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) , provide predominantly anatomic information. CT images reflect X-ray attenuation distribution within the brain, whereas MRI signals depend primarily on proton sensitivity and tissue relaxivity. The chapter "Structural Imaging Methods" reviews CT and MRI studies on schizophrenic and affective disorders and degenera tive central nervous system diseases. The impact of fast three dimensional (3-0) imaging and the automatic transfer from 3-D elements in the brain to artificial diagrams based on this information is considered. Since the original report of the findings of Ingvar and Franzen in 1974 and the introduction of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been gaining acceptance as one of the major imaging techniques, and it is available in most nuclear medicine depart ments. The section "Functional Imaging Methods (Cerebral Blood Flow - CBF, Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography - SPECT)" describes rCBF studies with the 133Xe inhalation method utilizing a 254 detector system and rCBF images measured by SPECT using the tracer 99mTc-HMPAO.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Neurological Diseases in Tropics

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Neurological Diseases in Tropics PDF Author: Rakesh K Gupta
Publisher: JP Medical Ltd
ISBN: 9350909723
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 364

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Book Description
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a scan that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body. This book is a comprehensive guide to the diagnosis and management of neurological infectious diseases using MRI. Divided into four sections, the text begins with an introduction to tropical diseases of the central nervous system, and their epidemiology. The second section provides in depth coverage of the technique of MRI, from the basic principles, to clinical application and more advanced features. The following sections describe use of the technique for both infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, HIV and parasitic diseases; and noninfectious conditions, such as stroke, poisoning and epilepsy. Each chapter features numerous MRI and pathological images and extensive references. Key points Comprehensive guide to diagnosis and management of neurological infectious diseases in tropics using MRI In depth coverage of the technique, from basics to more advanced aspects Covers MRI for both infectious and noninfectious conditions Includes nearly 300 MRI and pathological images

The Central Nervous System: Clinical Research and Advances

The Central Nervous System: Clinical Research and Advances PDF Author: Scarlett Santos
Publisher: American Medical Publishers
ISBN: 9781639273324
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 285

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Book Description
The central nervous system (CNS) refers to that part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for the integration of information and coordination of the activities of all the parts of the body. Retina, optic nerve, cranial nerves and olfactory epithelium are also considered as a part of the CNS. The brain is covered and protected by the skull and the vertebrae protect the spinal cord. Brain and spinal cord are enclosed in membranes known as meninges. There are many diseases and conditions associated with CNS. These include alzheimer's disease, parkinson's disease, autoimmune diseases, Krabbe's disease, multiple sclerosis, etc. The brain disorders can be diagnosed through neurological imaging. This book outlines the processes of the central nervous system in detail. It presents researches and studies performed by experts across the globe. The extensive content of this book provides the readers with a thorough understanding of the subject.

MR Imaging in White Matter Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord

MR Imaging in White Matter Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord PDF Author: Massimo Filippi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540276440
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 481

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Book Description
In recent decades, the use of neuroimaging techniques has resulted in outstanding progress in the diagnosis and management of neurological diseases, and this is particularly true of those diseases that affect the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. This book, written by internationally acclaimed experts, comprises a series of comprehensive and up-to-date reviews on the use of MR imaging in these major neurological conditions. The diverse available MR techniques, such as magnetization transfer MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, MR spectroscopy, functional MRI, cell-specific MRI, perfusion MRI, and microscopic imaging with ultra-high field MRI, offer an extraordinarily powerful means of gaining fundamental in vivo insights into disease processes. The strengths and weaknesses of all these techniques in the study of multiple sclerosis and other relevant diseases are extensively considered. After an introductory section on neuroimaging technology, subsequent sections address disorders of myelination, demyelinating diseases, immune-mediated disorders, and white matter disorders related to aging and other conditions. This book provides a valuable summary of the state of the art in the field, and defines important areas for future research.

Imaging of Non-Traumatic Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Disorders of the Central Nervous System

Imaging of Non-Traumatic Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Disorders of the Central Nervous System PDF Author: Mohammed Sarwar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461316537
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 288

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Book Description
The advances in neuroimaging are occurring at a we wish to accomplish by bringing out a series of dizzying pace. It is difficult for trainees in radiology volumes, each dealing with a single theme. The first and others in neurosciences-related disciplines to one is in your hands. keep abreast of the new developments. It is especially We wish to express our deepest gratitude to the important to design neuroimaging protocols to distinguished contributors, who have done an out evaluate various neurological diseases. It therefore standing job. We equally thank our publisher. seems highly desirable that review articles be readily Comments are welcome. available that comb through the plethora of literature and provide state-of-the-art information on neuro MS imaging of neurological diseases. It is this goal that SB Xl IMAGING OF NON-TRAUMATIC ISCHEMIC AND HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGE Robert D. Zimmerman Historical Background is inferior scanners with MR units. If, however, MR The advent of magnetic resonance imaging led to to CT in the detection of hemorrhage, hospitals attempts to define the appearance of hemorrhage would still be required to maintain CT scanners, using this new technique. Early reports focused on since the demonstration of hemorrhage is of para hematomas studied with T1-weighted (Tl W) inver mount diagnostic and therapeutic importance in a sion recovery (IR) Scans performed on resistive MR patient with acute neurologic ictus. imagers.